APA Referencing Example: Guralnik, Ferrucci, Simonsick, Salive and Wallace (1995) claimed that good nutrition and a physically active lifestyle have known benefits for prolonging functional independence and reducing the risk of disability, institutionalisation and mortality among older adults.
Intext citation examples; General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc. In the second example, Russell et al. in the parenthetical citation gives the reader an author name followed by the abbreviation et al.meaning, and others, for the article MLA Formatting and Style Guide.
The most common way you'll see et al. used in academic papers is in references, both for intext citations and in the reference list. For example, you might see the phrase, " Horowitz et al. (2012) published groundbreaking research, " which means that Horowitz and others published the research. Avoiding Plagiarism Citation Principles for Essays and Term Papers [APA pp. Within essays, term papers, and any other written assignments (as in all academic work), you must identify (i. e.reference, document, cite) all quotations, paraphrases, ideas, and images from someone elses work.
Note that et al. is italicized in this post when I am using it as a linguistic example, but it should not be italicized when you are using it as part of a reference citation. General Use of Et Al. Below is a chart showing when to use et al.which is determined by the number of authors and whether it is the first time a reference has been cited in the paper.
(Kernis et al.1993) In et al.et should not be followed by a period. Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses. Each subsequent mention you will abbreviate to just the first surname followed by et al.
For example, the first time Rasmussen, Hopkins, and Fitzpatrick (2004) is used, the source is cited like this: In researchbased development planning, decisionmaking is based on careful, systematic examination of goals, data, and results (Rasmussen, Et al. : When and How? by Paige Jackson I have italicized et al. in this post because its a linguistic example (see section 4. 21, p. 105). However, it should not be italicized when you are using it as part of a reference.
We also see et al without the period at the end. Because et al. is short for et alii Creating Essay References The essay reference at the end of a publication is a list of books and other literary sources, sections of which the writer indicated as quoted or paraphrased in his essay. The inclusion of other authoritative sources as reference is generally required for formal essays to enhance the credibility of the writer. Citation and Referencing Essay Sample.
Task 2 Decide if you need to give a reference in the following cases (18). 1) Data you found from your own primary research 2) An idea of your own Et al in references example for essay al. used when three or more authors are given; the full list of names is given in the reference list; Using" et al. " for intext citations in research papers Avoid instructions such as" See Table 2" and" Refer to Figure 6" Scientific writing: Tips More than three authors always give the first author, with or without the others use et al.
if not giving the other names. In text example: Mares et al. (2002, p. 105) proposed Use the lead author's name and et al. in your referencelist citation of a major reference book with a large editorial board. For example, " Props, F. F. et al. (1967). Encyclopedia of Halloween Costumes.